Filed in Theravada

What Do Buddhists Mean When They Talk About Emptiness?

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

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Emptiness is a mode of perception, a way of looking at experience. It adds nothing to, and takes nothing away from, the raw data of physical and mental events. You look at events in the mind and the senses with no thought of whether there's anything lying behind them.

This mode is called emptiness because it is empty of the presuppositions we usually add to experience in order to make sense of it: the stories and worldviews we fashion to explain who we are and the world we live in. Although these stories and views have their uses, the Buddha found that the questions they raise—of our true identity and the reality of the world outside—pull attention away from a direct experience of how events influence one another in the immediate present. Thus they get in the way when we try to understand and solve the problem of suffering.

Say, for instance, that you're meditating, and a feeling of anger toward your mother appears. Immediately, the mind's reaction is to identify the anger as "my" anger, or to say that "I'm" angry. It then elaborates on the feeling, either working it into the story of your relationship to your mother or to your general views about when and where anger toward one's mother can be justified. The problem with all this, from the Buddha's perspective, is that these stories and views entail a lot of suffering. The more you get involved in them, the more you get distracted from seeing the actual cause of the suffering: the labels of "I" and "mine" that set the whole process in motion. As a result, you can't find the way to unravel that cause and bring the suffering to an end.

If, however, you adopt the emptiness mode—by not acting on or reacting to the anger but simply watching it as a series of events, in and of themselves—you can see that the anger is empty of anything to identify with or possess. As you master the emptiness mode more consistently, you see that this truth holds not only for such gross emotions as anger, but also for even the most subtle events in the realm of experience. This is the sense in which all things are empty. When you see this, you realize that labels of "I" and "mine" are inappropriate, unnecessary, and cause nothing but stress and pain. You can drop them. When you drop them totally, you discover a mode of experience that lies deeper still, one that's totally free.

To master the emptiness mode of perception requires firm training in virtue, concentration, and discernment. Without this training, the mind stays in the mode that keeps creating stories and worldviews. And from the perspective of that mode, the teaching of emptiness sounds simply like another story or worldview with new ground rules. In terms of the story of your relationship to your mother it seems to be saying that there's really no mother, no you. In terms of your worldview, it seems to be saying either that the world doesn't really exist, or else that emptiness is the great undifferentiated ground of being from which we all came and to which someday we'll all return.

These interpretations not only miss the meaning of emptiness but also keep the mind from getting into the proper mode. If the world and the people in the story of your life don't really exist, then all the actions and reactions in that story seem like a mathematics of zeros, and you wonder why there's any point in practicing virtue at all. If, on the other hand, you see emptiness as the ground of being to which we're all going to return, then what need is there to train the mind in concentration and discernment, since we're all going to get there anyway? And even if we need training to get back to our ground of being, what's to keep us from coming out of it and suffering all over again? So in all these scenarios, the whole idea of training the mind seems futile and pointless. By focusing on the question of whether or not there really is something behind experience, they entangle the mind in issues that keep it from getting into the present mode.

Now, stories and worldviews do serve a purpose. The Buddha employed them when teaching people, but he never used the word emptiness when speaking in these modes. He recounted the stories of people's lives to show how suffering comes from the unskillful perceptions behind their actions, and how freedom from suffering can come from being more perceptive. And he described the basic principles that underlie the round of rebirth to show how bad intentional actions lead to pain within that round, good ones lead to pleasure, while really skillful actions can rake you beyond the round altogether. In all these cases, these teachings were aimed at getting people to focus on the quality of the perceptions and intentions in their minds in the present—in other words, to get them into the emptiness mode. Once there, they could use the teachings on emptiness for their intended purpose: to loosen all attachments to views, stories, and assumptions, leaving the mind empty of all the greed, anger; and delusion, and thus empty of suffering and stress. And when you come right down to it, that's the emptiness that really counts.

Thanissaro Bhikkhu is the abbot of Metta Forest Monastery in Valley Center, California. His most recent book is The Wings to Awakening (Dhamma Dana Publications).

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feralyung's picture

The standard assertion of Buddhism is that by wiping away the cobwebs of ignorance typified by the three poisons of greed, anger, and delusion what remains is the Buddha nature which answers the question of appolonios above but my question is somewhat more philosophical. The Dalai Lama has been carrying on an open discussion with the scientific community with the mind and life institute being a prime example. He has stated that the nature of reality is open to story telling and that the framework of material existence has some merit as a partial frame for a discussion of how pragmatic empiricism might tease out the connections between the physical world and the vital and mental worlds. Thannissaro Bikkhu sounds like many people I hear in the Buddhist community who may be engaged in a skillful means exercise but do an injustice to those of us who see the mind as an instrument of perception that is disciplined by the rigors of philosophical debate like what is happening at the mind and life institute. B. Alan Wallace has just published a book "Meditations of a Buddhist Skeptic" which I heartily recommend to those with the scientific background to appreciate the subtleties involved in the East/West encounter that is part of the beginnings of a new science. Another book by the 1998 Nobel laureate in physics, Robert B. Laughlin "A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down" has a new take on theorizing that sounds very much like dependent origination. Within Hinduism the is a yoga called jnana yoga that is not for everyone. It is a yoga of the mind that delves deeply into epistemological issues that might be too difficult for most people. I think Buddhism's encounter with western science is fomenting a revolution in Buddhist epistemology and is shaking the foundations of Western science. It is something every educated Buddhist should have at a passing awareness of.

apollonios's picture

Why doesn't this experience of emptiness leave the mind empty of joy, delight and love as well as greed, anger and delusion?

Dominic Gomez's picture

Because you are alive. Rather than "empty" as in nothing there, think neutral, as neither in drive nor in reverse. Until you shift gears and make your self (i.e. your mind, your life) go, that is. Joy, delight, love, greed, anger and delusion don't disappear. They've just not been activated by things in your environment.

Mike Nielsen's picture

"You look at events in the mind and the senses with no thought of whether there's anything lying behind them."

I like the image of "events in the mind" having no substance. Were it not for the fact that I seldom yield to this obvious fact, the article could end right there. But in the rest of the article, I recognize the patterns of discursive thought that tend to dominate my daily life. I even had an argument about emptiness with a friend yesterday. As my Irish Catholic mother used to say, "That's the height of nothing."

rinchen_wangmo's picture

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