On the night of his enlightenment, the Buddha resists the tempter-demon Mara's repeated attempts to distract him from his ultimate goal of realization. In a last-ditch effort to undermine the future Buddha's resolve, Mara asks him, "Who bears witness to your awakening?" In response, the Buddha reaches down to touch the earth and answers, "I call the earth as my witness." At this moment, the ground shakes and the trees shudder in response. Mara, the tempter, has been defeated.