History

  • Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and Arahants Paid Member

    Who better than the Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi to discuss the competing Buddhist ideals of the arahant and the bodhisattva? Bhikkhu Bodhi has been trained in both the Mahayana and Theravada traditions and is one of the most respected and, um, thorough Buddhist scholars around. His paper "Arahants, Bodhisattvas, and Buddhas" appears on Access to Insight. The introduction is reproduced below, but it's worth reading in full on ATI. Among other interesting points, he discusses what distinguishes the Buddha from other arahants, and describes the emergence of the Mahayana from a proto bodhisattva-yana. The arahant ideal and the bodhisattva ideal are often considered the respective guiding ideals of Theravāda Buddhism and Mahāyāna Buddhism. This assumption is not entirely correct, for the Theravāda tradition has absorbed the bodhisattva ideal into its framework and thus recognizes the validity of both arahantship and Buddhahood as objects of aspiration. It would therefore be more accurate to say that the arahant ideal and the bodhisattva ideal are the respective guiding ideals of Early Buddhism and Mahāyāna Buddhism. By "Early Buddhism" I do not mean the same thing as Theravāda Buddhism that exists in the countries of southern Asia. I mean the type of Buddhism embodied in the archaic Nikāyas of Theravāda Buddhism and in the corresponding texts of other schools of Indian Buddhism that did not survive the general destruction of Buddhism in India. It is important to recognize that these ideals, in the forms that they have come down to us, originate from different bodies of literature stemming from different periods in the historical development of Buddhism. If we don't take this fact into account and simply compare these two ideals as described in Buddhist canonical texts, we might assume that the two were originally expounded by the historical Buddha himself, and we might then suppose that the Buddha — living and teaching in the Ganges plain in the 5th century B.C. — offered his followers a choice between them, as if to say: "This is the arahant ideal, which has such and such features; and that is the bodhisattva ideal, which has such and such features. Choose whichever one you like." The Mahāyāna sūtras, such as the Mahāprajñā-pāramitā Sūtra and the Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sūtra (the Lotus Sūtra), give the impression that the Buddha did teach both ideals. Such sūtras, however, certainly are not archaic. To the contrary, they are relatively late attempts to schematize the different types of Buddhist practice that had evolved over a period of roughly four hundred years after the Buddha's parinirvāṇa. More »
  • Makeup made their children stupid Paid Member

    Did heavy makeup bring down the shogunate? It's possible. Remains of children of samurai show sky-high levels of lead in their bones, most likely from their mothers, who adorned their faces with white, lead-based powder. Idiocy was apparently epidemic among the Edo-era shogunate, with lead levels far above those associated with intellectual impairment. This may have had political consequences, according to an an MSNBC report, which cites the research of Tamiji Nakashima, an anatomist at the University of Occupational and Environmental Health in Kitakyushu: More »
  • Nalanda to rise from the ashes Paid Member

    It's looking more and more likely nowadays that the legendary Indian university of Nalanda, which at its peak  taught 10,000 students and employed 2,000 faculty, will rise again, according to AFP. The site is more than the heap of bricks that so many other Buddhist historical ruins have become over the centuries. You can still see the general plan, some monks' cells, and you can even get a pretty good idea of what it must have looked like. Maybe that's one of the reasons it's such an attractive candidate for rebuilding. Nalanda was founded in the 3rd century, in what today is the northeastern Indian state of Bihar, and later became one of the world's most well-known learning centers of its time. More »
  • Beautiful Photos from the Ajanta Caves Paid Member

    The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, India, are rock-cut cave monuments that were crafted in between the second century BCE and the eighth century CE containing paintings and sculptures that are true masterpieces of Buddhist art. After being abandoned sometime around the 8th or 9th century CE, the caves were long forgotten until they were rediscovered in 1819 when a man accidentally stumbled upon an entrance while trying to navigate his way through the tangled brush. Today, a piece was published on the Washington Bangla Radio website containing beautiful photographs from a recent visit to the caves. More »
  • China's oldest Buddhist temple Paid Member

    According to the Asian News Network, China's oldest temple aims to position itself as a major Buddhist hub. Built in 68 CE, the White Horse (Baima) Temple, in Luoyang, in China's Henan province, has a colorful history. The ANN reports: According to legend, the Eastern Han Emperor Yongping (reign: AD 57-75) dreamed of a golden figure with a halo, which his advisers assumed was the Buddha, in India. Emissaries were sent abroad to learn more about Buddhism and they returned years later with two Indian monks on white horses, bearing sutras and statues.... More »